Cardiovascular: This term refers to the heart (cardio) and the blood vessels (vascular). The cardiovascular system includes arteries, veins, arterioles, venuoles, and capillaries.
Vaginal cone: A vaginal cone is a medical device specifically designed and shaped to exercise pelvic floor muscles in order to strengthen them and restore proper bladder functions in women with urinary stress incontinence.
Endometriosis: Endometriosis is a common and sometimes debilitating condition experienced by women of reproductive age. This disease causes chronic pelvic pain and is sometimes associated with infertility. Endometriosis is the growth of tissue, similar to the kind that lines a woman’s uterus, elsewhere in her body. That ‘elsewhere’ is usually in the abdomen. This misplaced tissue responds to the menstrual cycle in the same way that the tissue lining the uterus does: each month the tissue builds up, breaks down and sheds. Menstrual blood from the uterus flows out of the body through the vagina; however, the blood and tissue from endometriosis has no way of leaving the body. This results in inflammation and sometimes scarring (adhesions), both of which can cause the painful symptoms of endometriosis and may contribute to difficulty getting pregnant. For more information, visit YourPeriod.ca.
Premature menopause: While this is no firmly established age, women who stop menstruating before the age of 40 are usually viewed as having premature menopause. This can occur naturally or can be the result of a genetic problem, immune disorder, surgery, irradiation or medication.
Conjugated estrogens: These estrogens are a blend of estrogens that can be chemically produced or derived from plant or animal sources.
Estrogen: Is one of the two dominant hormones secreted naturally by women’s bodies, the other being progestin. The two, together, regulate the reproductive system and affect menstruation, pregnancy and menopause.
Perimenopause: Women experience perimenopause in the time before they have reached menopause. This time frame, anywhere between two and ten years, is characterized by some of the physical and emotional changes associated with diminishing hormones. In perimenopause, women still menstruate, but their cycle can vary and their menstrual periods may be heavier, or even more scant. During this time, women may begin to have some hot flashes and their sleep may be disrupted. Officially, the perimenopause phase includes the first year after menopause when menstruation has stopped.
Pessary: A pessary is a small plastic or silicone medical device or form of pharmaceutical preparation which is inserted into the vagina or rectum and held in place by the muscles in the pelvic floor. The weight and positioning of this device can assist with urinary incontinence.
Pelvic floor: The pelvic floor is made up of a group of muscles, ligaments and tissues that support the main organs of the lower abdomen, (bladder, and uterus, intestine) and control urine.
Post-menopause: This is the period after the final menstrual period, whether menopause was natural or due to surgery.
Progestin: Is one of the two dominant hormones secreted naturally by women’s bodies, the other being estrogen. The two, together, regulate the reproductive system and affect menstruation, pregnancy and menopause.
Urogenital: Urogenital symptoms are those that affect the function and health of the bladder and vagina. Urogenital atrophy is the term used to describe any deterioration of the tissues, muscles, structure and functions of the vagina and/or urinary tract.
Vasomotor symptoms: Menopause symptoms, mainly hot flashes and night sweats, are referred to as vasomotor symptoms. Vasomotor symptoms are controlled by the brain’s vasomotor centre, which manages dilatation and constriction of blood vessels.